- Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (also known as the World Heritage Convention, WHC)
- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
- Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity (also known as the Biosafety Protocol)
- Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol On Liability And Redress To The Cartagena Protocol On Biosafety
- Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefi ts Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity
- Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (also known as the Washington Convention, CITES)
- Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (also known as the Ramsar Convention)
- International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGR)
- Lusaka Agreement on Co-Operative Enforcement Operations Directed At Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna And Flora
- Assessment of the capacity of selected countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America to implement the new CITES listings of Sharks and Manta Rays.
Summary of a study commissioned by CITES - August 2014
- A brief introduction to CITES listing of shark species
Published with the support from the European Union
- CITES - Regulating the world's wildlife trade
This brochure was prepared for the 40th anniversary of CITES.
- CITES Handbook includes:
- Text of the Convention
- Resolutions of the Conference of the Parties in effect after the 15th meeting
- Decisions of the Conference of the Parties in effect after the 15th meeting
The basis for this glossary has been the compilation of the terms that are defined in the text of the Convention and in Resolutions. To this first set the Secretariat has added recurrent terms that have not been officially defined, such as 'amendment proposal'. Users of this glossary should note that the definitions provided herewith may be specific to CITES and not valid in another context.
- CITES trade: a snapshot The brochure, CITES trade: a snapshot, includes snapshots of the analyses made, and the trade value and trends of key commodities of Appendix II species. It also presents many of the trends graphically, thereby giving readers a better grasp on the extent and importance of the Convention in the conservation and sustainable use of species.
- CITES Trade: recent trends in international trade in Appendix II-listed species (1996-2010) Prepared for the CITES Secretariat by United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre
The CITES Secretariat commissioned the report on CITES Trade: recent trends in nternational trade in Appendix II-listed species (1996-2010). This report is based on CITES trade data, and will be the first of a number of publications planned to assist Parties gain access to the knowledge needed to manage wildlife trade sustainably. The report aims to improve understanding of how CITES can help to ensure that the use of wildlife is sustainable and how it can contribute tangible benefits for local people.
Database driven Checklist of CITES Species, 2013
This state-of-the-art electronic resource provides users with an intuitive interface where queries can be made using not just scientific or common species names but also CITES Appendices, countries or regions, and any combinations thereof. The display of results can be further refined by selecting criteria such as synonyms or authors' names. Users can thus produce a tailored Index of CITES species listing, for instance, all CITES species occurring in a specific country. The history of listing is displayed on screen for each taxon and can be printed off in a single document covering all taxa.
- CITES and the WTO: Enhancing Cooperation for Sustainable Development
The present joint publication illustrates how the relationship between CITES and the WTO has evolved into a leading example of how global trade and environmental regimes can support each other and work coherently to achieve shared objectives. Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO) and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 2015.
- ICCWC: International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime
The International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime ‘ICCWC’ is the collaborative effort of five intergovernmental organizations working to bring coordinated support to national wildlife law enforcement agencies and the subregional and regional enforcement networks that act in defence of natural resources
- Implementing cites listings of sharks and manta rays 2013 - 2016
Prepared by CITES in collaboration with FAO with support from the European Union
- Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2004.
- Abensperg-Traun, M., Roe, D. and O’Criodain, C., eds. (2011). CITES and CBNRM: Proceedings of an international symposium on The relevance of CBNRM to the conservation and sustainable use of CITES-listed species in exporting countries, Vienna, Austria, 18-20 May 2011. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN and London, UK: IIED.
- Compliance-Related Texts and Decisions of Selected Multilateral Environmental Agreements. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP Division of Environmental Law and Conventions, 2011.
- Dey, Tapan Kumar and Rabbi, Golam. (2015). Guide book on wildlife law enforcement in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Strengthening Regional Co-operation for Wildlife Protection Project Bangladesh Forest Department.
- Evaluation of the harvest of "Prunus Africana" bark on Bioko (Equatorial Guinea): guidelines for a management plan / Clemente Muñoz, Margarita África ... [et al.]– Córdoba: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Córdoba, 2006.
Green Customs Guide to Multilateral Environmental Agreements/
produced by the Green Customs Initiative Secretariat, Sandra Ledent, ed. -- Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme, 2008.
This publication, which has been designed to be used by Customs officers as part of a training curriculum or as a stand-alone introduction to the subject, provides you with an overview of the conventions, their requirements related to trade in the "environmentally sensitive", and your role in facilitating their legal trade and preventing illegal trade.
Handbook on the Imlementation of Conventions Related to Biological Diversity in
Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP, 1999.
The objective of this Handbook is to provide a reference point for biodiversity conservation programmes in Africa. The book is formulated around the main biodiversity conventions of relevance to Africa.
- Rosser, A. M. and Harrop, S. R. Approaches to sustainable use: CITES non-detriment findings and CBD sustainable use principles. Journal of International Wilflife Law and Policy, v.10: 2007.
- Scanlon, John E. and Fedotov, Yury. (2015), Corruption as an enabler of wildlife and forest crime - Joint Statement of the Executive Director of UNODC and the Secretary-General of CITES
- Scanlon, John E. (2015), CITES - 40 Years of International Cooperation and National Action. Natural Resources Policy and Practice, Guest article no. 48 (IISD)
- Scanlon, John E. (2015), Keynote Address by CITES Secretary-General John E. Scanlon at the Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
- Scanlon, John E. and Samper, Cristián. (2015), The New Sustainable Development Goals: a Vision for Living in Harmony with Nature National Geographic, Posted by Wildlife Conservation Society on September 25, 2015.
- Scanlon, John E. (2015), "Wildlife advocate," Interview by Maria Ivanova. Global Leadership Dialogues. V.2:3.
- Scanlon, John E. (2014), CITES and confiscated elephant ivory and rhino horn – to destroy or not destroy?National Geographic, Posted on October 20, 2014.
- Scanlon, John E. (2014). Strengthening Front-Line Action to Combat Wildlife and Forest Crimes. UN Chronicle: The Magazine of the United Nations, v. 51(2). (also available at: http://unchronicle.un.org/issue/illegal-wildlife-trade/)
- Scanlon, John E. (2013) CITES at 40 Marks a Major Decision Point for Sharks, Trees, Snakes, Turtles and other Wildlife Species. Biodiversity policy and practice. Guest Article #18. International Institute for Sustainable development. Also available at IISD
- Scanlon, John E. (2013) CITES at Its Best: CoP16 as a Watershed Moment for the World’s Wildlife. Review of European, Comparative and International Environmental Law. V 22(3): 222-227. Also available at RECIEL
- Scanlon, John E. (2013). The CITES Virtual College: Providing life-long learning 24 hours a day seven days a week. Gland, Switzerland: World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, [see page 5). (also available at: http://www.waza.org/en/site/marketing-media/publications-1264077522)
- Scanlon, John E. (2012), CITES: From Stockholm in ‘72 to Rio+20 - Back to the future, Guest article no. 13 (IISD)
- Scanlon, John E. (2012). Brief 5: Enhancing Environmental Governance for Sustainable Development: Function-Oriented Options. Governance and Sustainability Issue Brief Series., paper 3. Boston, University of Massachussets, Boston. (also available at: http://scholarworks.umb.edu/cgs_issue_brief_series/3)
- Scanlon, John E. (2015). World Forestry Conference 2015, Durban Tree Talk with John Scanlon, CITES Secretary-General. Youtube.
- Tropical timber:a vital legacy CITES and ITTO join forces to promote the conservation and sustainable harvest of tropical timbers / International Tropical Timber Organization and the CITES Secretariat, .
- Wildlife and Forest
Crime Analytic Toolkit. International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC), 2012.
The Wildlife and Forest Crime Analytic Toolkit was prepared by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) with the support of the Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), the World Bank and the World Customs Organization. Together all five agencies form the International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC).
- Wildlife Trade Regulations in the European Union. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010. See also: Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 757/2012 of 20 August 2012 suspending the introduction into the Union of specimens of certain species of wild fauna and flora. Official Journal of the European Union.
- Wijnstekers, Willem. The Evolution of CITES. 9th ed. Budakeszi, Hungary, 2011.
The 9th edition of this comprehensive publication presents a history of the evolution of CITES. It begins with the basics and guides the reader through its complex structure. It presents the provisions of the Convention and relevant Resolutions and Decisions in an accessible way as well as providing explanations and comments to facilitate an understanding of the Convention and of how it should be implemented.
- World Economic Forum. Green Light, Creating the Business Case for CITES: A New Finance Mechanism. Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
Publications by Mr John E. Scanlon, Secretary-General of CITES
- Australia. Dept. of the Environment. (2014). Non-Detriment Finding for the export of shark species listed in the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES) and harvested from Australian waters:
- Sphyrna lewini - scalloped hammerhead shark
- Sphyrna mokarran - great hammerhead shark
- Sphyrna zygaena - smooth hammerhead shark
- Lamna nasus - porbeagle shark
- Carcharhinus longimanus - oceanic whitetip shark
- Simpfendorfer, Colin. (2014). Information for the development of Non Detriment Findings for CITES listed sharks. Report to Department of the Environment, Australia. .
- Koopman, M. and Knuckey, I. (2014). Advice on CITES Appendix II Shark Listings. Report to Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Fishwell Consulting.
Guidance For CITES Scientific Authorities: Checklist to assist in making
non-detriment findings for Appendix II exports / Rosser, A.R. and Haywood,
M.J. (Compilers). IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK., 2002.
Originally published at the eleventh Conference of the Parties (Gigiri, 2000) as document Inf. 11.3
- Table of contents
- PART I: Introduction and rationale
- PART II: Presentations made by Scientific Authority staff from producer and consumer Parties
- PART III: Technical considerations in making non-detriment findings
- PART IV: Guidelines to assist the Parties in making non-detriment findings
- ANNEX I: French and Spanish translations of the Checklist to assist Scientific Authorities in making Non-detriment Findings
- ANNEX II: Background Documents
- Leaman, D.J. and Oldfield, T.E.E. CITES Non-detriment Findings Guidance for Perennial Plants: A nine-step process to support CITES Scientific Authorities making science-based non-detriment findings (NDFs) for species listed in CITES Appendix II.. (also available in PDF format)V 1.0. (BfN-Skripten 358). Bonn: Bundesamt für Naturschutz (BfN), Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, 2014. (Available online as PC21 Inf. 1 or with additional information and material on the NDF-section of the website of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation)
- Rose, Martin. Non-detriment Findings in CITES (NDFs). Version 1.2. By Martin Rose, on behalf of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management. Vienna, Austria: Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, 2014. Also available in German: Nachhaltigkeitsprüfungen in CITES (NDFs)
- Shark NDF Guidance documents Developed by German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (CITES Scientific Authority)
In March 2013 the 16th Conference of the Parties adopted the inclusion of five new shark species in Appendix II of CITES. As a follow-up in the same year the German Scientific Authority (Fauna) to CITES commissioned a project to develop a method to carry out non-detriment findings (NDFs) for shark species. The resulting report "CITES Non-detriment Findings - Guidance for Shark species" has been initially presented to the 27th Meeting of the Animals Committee in May 2014. This guidance was evaluated and tested by shark and CITES experts during a workshop convened at the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) in Bonn/Germany in August 2014. Based on the results of the workshop the initial guidance has been revised and an updated version produced. This revised version has also been translated into Spanish.
The German Scientific Authority to CITES (Fauna) (CITES-Science@bfn.de, email@example.com) would welcome any comments to the revised version, especially with regard to experiences made when using the guidance to carry out non-detriment findings for specific shark stocks.
- Mundy-Taylor, V., Crook. V., Foster, S., Fowler, S., Sant, G. and Rice, J. (October 2014). CITES Non-detriment Findings - Guidance for Shark species: A Framework to assist Authorities in making Non-detriment Findings (NDFs) for species listed in CITES Appendix II. 2nd revised version. Report prepared for the Germany Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Bundesamt für Naturschutz, BfN)
- Report of the German Workshop to Review the Shark NDF Guidance (PDF);
- CITES Non-detriment Findings - Guidance for Shark species, 2014, 2nd, revised (PDF)
- CITES DENP Guia Tiburones, 2014, 2nd version ( PDF)
Publications made possible through the project Strengthening CITES implementation capacity of developing countries to ensure sustainable wildlife management and non-detrimental trade which was supported by the European Union
- 2013 – Madagascar Crocodile Project Final Report. Report prepared by General Directorate for Forests, Ministry of Environment and Forests of Madagascar (CITES Management Authority). Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
- Building in-country capacity to undertake Non-Detriment Findings with regard to Hippocampus species in Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam. Report prepared by Project Seahorse, Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia. Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
- Framework for CITES non-detriment findings for hunting trophies with a focus on Argali Ovis ammon. Report by TRAFFIC. Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora(CITES), Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [Also published in Russian]
- Inspection Manual for use in Commercial Reptile Breeding Facilities in Southeast Asia. Report prepared by TRAFFIC. Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
- Strengthening Capacity for Monitoring and Regulation of International Trade of African Grey Parrot. Report prepared by BirdLife Africa Partnership Secretariat. Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
- Studies on the Furcifer angeli chameleon for the purpose of reopening international trade in the species. Report prepared by Madagasikara Voakajy. Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
- Studies on the Mantella viridis amphibian for the purpose of reopening international trade in the species. Report prepared by Madagasikara Voakajy. Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
- Trophy Hunting of CITES-listed species in Central Asia. Report by TRAFFIC. Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [Also available in Russian]
- Wildlife trade in the Eurasian Customs Union and in selected Central Asian countries. Report prepared by TRAFFIC. Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [Also available in Russian]
- Abido, May. Illegal Trade in Falcons in Syria. Master's Degree in “Management, Access, and Conservation of Species in Trade; The International Framework”. Baeza (Jaén), Spain: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2010.
- Amaral, Luiz Paulo Meira Lopes do. Cría en Cautividad con Fines Comerciales en CITES - Propuesta Regulatoria para Brasil. Máster en Gestión, Acceso y Conservación en Comercio: El Marco Internacional. Baeza (Jaén), España: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2010. [Available in Portuguese and Spanish only]
- Behbehani, Wafa'a. Assessment of the Trade in Falcons and their Use in the State of Kuwait and Suggestions for Improving Compliance and Controls. Master’s Degree in Management, Access, and Conservation of Species in Trade; the International Framework. Baeza (Jaén), Spain: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2010.
- John, C. Lyndon. Assessment on the Implementation of Two MEAs in Saint Lucia: Case Studies on the CITES and CBD. Master’s Degree in Management, Access, and Conservation of Species in Trade; the International Framework. Baeza (Jaén), Spain: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2012.
- Kanga Medjo, Serge Patrick. Contribution a la mise en place d’un systeme electronique de delivrance de permis CITES au Cameroun. Master’s Degree of Management, Access, and Conservation of Species in Trade; the International Framework. Baeza (Jaén), Spain: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2014. [Available in French only]
- Mobaraki, Asghar. Sustainable Management and conservation of the Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) in Iran . Master’s Degree of Management, Access, and Conservation of Species in Trade; the International Framework. Baeza (Jaén), Spain: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2015.
- Rojas Briñez, Diana Karina. Comercio de fauna Silvestre en el departamento del Tolima-Colombia bajo el context de la demanda internacional de especies. Máster en Gestión, Acceso y Conservación en Comercio: El Marco Internacional. Baeza (Jaén), España: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2011. [Available in Spanish only]
- Saxena, Ajay Kumar. CITES and CBD implementation in India: Complementarities, current implementation status and future challenges. Master’s Degree inManagement, Access, and Conservation of Species in Trade; the International Framework. Baeza (Jaén), Spain: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2012.
- Zava, Emilio. Evaluation of conservation status and management of elephant population (Loxodonta africana) in southern of Mozambique (case study of Limpopo National Park). Master’s Degree in Management, Access, and Conservation of Species in Trade; the International Framework. Baeza (Jaén), Spain: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2014.
- Zúquete, Ana Gamboa. Bases para la implantación de un sistema de licenciamiento electrónico CITES en Portugal. Máster en Gestión, Acceso y Conservación en Comercio: El Marco Internacional. Baeza (Jaén), España: Universidad Internacional de Andalucía, 2010. [Available in Spanish only]
- Betti, Jean Lagarde. Non-Detriment Findings Report on Prunus Africana (Rosaceae) in Cameroon. NDF Workshop Case Studies, 2008.
- Donaldson, J. South African Encephalartos Species. NDF Workshop Case Studies, 2008.
- Khayota, B. Non-Detriment Findings for the Genus Ansellia Lindl. in Kenya. NDF Workshop Case Studies, 2008.
- Kyalo, S. Non-Detriment Finding Studies on Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus Niloticus): the Status of and Trade in the Nile Crocodile in Kenya.
- Newton, D. [et al.] Development of a Non-Detriment Finding Process for Pelargonium Sidoides in Lesotho. NDF Workshop Case Studies, 2008.
- Swart, E. Hoodia Gordonii in Southern Africa. NDF Workshop Case Studies, 2008.
- Wabuyele, E. and Kyalo, S. Sustainable Use of East African Aloes: the Case of Commercial Aloes in Kenya. NDF Workshop Case Studies, 2008.
CITES Trade Database
The CITES trade database is a unique resource and currently holds 7 million records of trade in wildlife and 50,000 scientific names of taxa listed by CITES. Currently, more than 500,000 records of trade in CITES-listed species of wildlife are reported annually.
- See also: A guide to using the CITES Trade Database
- CITES Trade Data Dashboards
The CITES Trade Data Dashboards provide an interactive, dynamic way of viewing the trade data submitted by CITES Parties in their annual reports to the Convention. Two points of entry are provided: 1)the Global Dashboard, which displays global trade trends by taxonomic group; and 2) the National Dashboard, which displays trade data by country or region.
ECOLEX is an information service on environmental law, operated jointly by FAO, IUCN and UNEP. Its purpose is to build capacity worldwide by providing the most comprehensive possible global source of information on environmental law. This unique resource, which combines the environmental law information holdings of FAO, IUCN and UNEP, seeks to put this information at the disposal of users world-wide, in an easily accessible service, employing modern technology. The ECOLEX database includes information on treaties, international soft-law and other non-binding policy and technical guidance documents, national legislation, judicial decisions, and law and policy literature. Users have direct access to the abstracts and indexing information about each document, as well as to the full text of most of the information provided.
InforMEA harvests COP decisions, news, meetings, membership, national focal points and reports from MEAs. Information is organised by terms from MEA COP agendas. InforMEA is a project of the MEA Information and Knowledge Management (IKM) Initiative with the support from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
- Trade Information Query Tool
This database includes information on CITES Quotas, other CITES restrictions (animals only), and EC suspensions and opinions.
- UNEP-WCMC E-library
The UNEP-WCMC E-library is a searchable database of electronic documents, developed for the European Commission and Member States in the implementation of Community wildlife trade controls.
- UNEP-WCMC EU Wildlife Trade Regulation database
The EU Wildlife Trade Regulation database includes more than 33,000 accepted plant and animal species that are listed in the CITES Appendices and the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations and many of their synonyms. It was created and is maintained by UNEP-WCMC with financial support from the European Commission.
Species+, developed by UNEP-WCMC and the CITES Secretariat, is a website designed to assist Parties with implementing CITES, CMS and other multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Species+ provides a centralised portal for accessing key information on species of global concern.
In particular, Species+ contains information on all species that are listed in the Appendices of CITES and CMS, as well as other CMS Family listings and species included in the Annexes to the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations.
- CITES Identification Guide: Amphibians: Guide to the Identification of Amphibian Species Controlled under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora / Published by Environment Canada with the collaboration of CITES Secretariat. Ottawa: Environment Canada, 2006.
- CITES Identification Guide: Birds: Guide to the Identification of Bird Species Controlled under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora / Published by Authority of the Minister of Environment, Canadian Wildlife Service. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service, 1994.
- CITES Identification Guide – butterflies : Guide to the Identification of Butterfly Species Controlled under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora / Issued by Wildlife Division, Enforcement Branch, Environment Canada. Ottawa: CITES Secretariat and Biodiversity Convention Office, Environment Canada, 2000.
- CITES Identification Guide – Sturgeons and Paddlefish: Guide to the Identification of Sturgeon and Paddlefish Species Controlled under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora / Issued by Wildlife Enforcement and Intelligence Division, Environment Canada. Ottawa: Environment Canada in collaboration with CITES Secretariat, TRAFFIC Europe, the Rufford Foundation and the Ministère de l'aménagement du territoire et de l'environnement, France, 2001.
- CITES Identification Guide – Turtles and Tortoises: Guide to the Identification of Turtles and Tortoises Species Controlled under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora / An initiative of Environment Canada and PROFEPA (SEMARNAP). Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1999.
- CITES Identification Guide – Tropical Woods: Guide to the Identification of Tropical Woods Controlled under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora / Issued by Wildlife Enforcement and Intelligence Division, Enforcement Branch, Environment Canada. Ottawa: Environment Canada in collaboration with the CITES Secretariat and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 2002.
- CITES Identification Guide – Crocodilians: Guide to the Identification of Crocodilian Species Controlled under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora / Environment Canada. Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1995.
- CITES identification guide – hunting trophies: guide to the identification of game mammals controlled under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora / Environment Canada. Ottawa: Environment Canada in collaboration with the CITES Secretariat, the Commision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO), Mexico and the Safari Club International, 2003.
- Hai-Tao Shi et al. Identification Manual for the Conservation of Turtles in China. 3rd ed. / Beijing, China: Encyclopedia of China Publishing House, 2013.
- Colombia. Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible. Guía para la identificación de especies de tiburones, rayas y quimeras de Colombia. Editores: Paola A. Mejía-Falla, Andrés Felipe Navia, Vladimir Puentes. Bogotá, D.C.: Colombia. Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible, 2011. (Available only in Spanish)
- Thünen Institute of Wood Research (Hamburg, Germany) on behalf of the Scientific Authority for Germany. CITESwoodID – a practical tool in the control of CITES timber species. 3rd version. 2014. (A computer aided, interactive identification program, CITESwoodID, was developed at the Thünen Institute of Wood Research in Hamburg (Germany) on behalf of the German CITES Scientific Authority. This program can be considered as a practical approach and a basis for a quick simple risk analysis, serving as a first indication as to what an unknown timber might be). Copies of the CD-ROM can be obtained free of charge at the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN), Germany (email to firstname.lastname@example.org)
- Benítez-Díaz H., A. García Naranjo-Ortiz de la Huerta y E. Rivera-Téllez. Identification guide for Latin American tree frogs (Agalychnis) protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) / México, DF: Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO), México, 2012.
- Sánchez, O., M. A. Pineda, H. Benítez, B. González y H. Berlanga. Guía de identificación para las aves y mamíferos silvestres de mayor comercio en México protegidos por la CITES. Secretaría de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca/Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, México, 1998. (Available only in Spanish)
- The Management Authorities of Spain and Turkey have translated a number of identification guides into Turkish. This project was funded by the European Union.
- CITES Tanimlama Kilavuzu: Kuslar. Kanada Çevre Bakanligi, Kanada Yaban Hayati Dairesi. [CITES Identification Guide – Birds, Environment Canada]
- CITES Tanimlama Kilavuzu: Timsahlar. Kanada Çevre Bakanligi. [CITES Identification Guide – Crocodilians, Environment Canada]
- CITES Tanimlama Kilavuzu: Av Trofeleri. Kanada Çevre Bakanligi.[CITES identification guide – hunting trophies, Environment Canada]
- CITES Tanimlama Kilavuzu: Mersin Baliklari. Kanada Çevre Bakanligi. [CITES Identification Guide – Sturgeons and Paddlefish, Environment Canada]
- CITES Tanimlama Kilavuzu: Tropik Agaçlar. Kanada Çevre Bakanligi. [CITES Identification Guide – Tropical Woods, Environment Canada]
- CITES Tanimlama Kilavuzu: Kara ve Su Kaplumbagalari. Kanada Çevre Bakanligi. [CITES Identification Guide – Turtles and Tortoises, Environment Canada]
- Çiru (Tibet Antilobu) Yasadisi Ticaret ve Sahtus Yünü ile Sallarini Tanimlamak Için Yaban Hayati Adli Teknikleri. Hindistan Yaban Hayati Enstitüsü, 2010.
- CITES ve Kaktüsler. Kraliyet Botanik Bahçeleri Yönetim Kurulu, Kew, 2012. [CITES and Cacti: A User's Guide. Kew Botanical Gardens]
- Köpekbaligi Yüzgeçlerinin Teshisi: Akyüzgeçli, Dikburun ve Çekiçbasli Köpekbaliklari. Pew Bagis Güven. [Identifying Shark Fins: Oceanic Whitetip, Porbeagle and Hammerheads, Pew Environment Group, PEW Charitable Trusts]
- Fildisi ve fildisi türevleri için tanimlama kilavuzu [Identification guide for ivory and ivory substitutes, TRAFFIC]
- Switzerland. Federal Food and Safety and Veterinary Office, Tengwood Organisation Bushmeat: Information and identification guide. A collaboration of the Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office and Tengwood Organisation. [Bern, Switzerland: FSVO, 2015. (Available in English and French)
- United States. Department of Agriculture. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Plant Protection and Quarantine. (2006). CITES I-II-III timber species manual. Washington, D.C.: US Dept. of Agriculture.
- Abercrombie, D.L., Chapman, D.D., Gulak, S.J.B., and Carlson, J.K. Visual identification of fins from common Elasmobranchs in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Washington, D.C.: NOAA, 2013. NMFS-SEFSC-643.
- FAO FishFinder - Web Site. FAO FishFinder. FI Institutional Websites. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated . [Cited 16 January 2014].
- iSharkFin: A new software package for the identification of shark fins released today by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).See the FAO page for details and access.
CITES Wiki Identification Manual
The CITES Wiki Identification Manual is a collection of data sheets designed to help identify various species of fauna and flora with drawings (black and white), photographs, maps and concise descriptions. It is a useful tool for CITES Management and Scientific Authorities, Customs officials, and all others involved in implementing and enforcing CITES. Users who wish to add identification content, or modify existing content, must first register through the CITES Wiki Identification Manual.
- Database on identification materials on sharks
- The Green Customs Knowledge Series (identification teaching presentations)
- Seret, Bernard, Mathieu Ducrocq, and Franc¸ois Guiol. Identification Guide of the Main Shark and Ray Species of the Eastern Tropical Atlantic. Tour Du Valat: FIBA, 2006.
- Pew Environment Group and the Roe Foundation. Identifying Shark Fins: Oceanic Whitetip, Porbeagle and Hammerheads. Compiled by Debra L. Abercrombie, Abercrombie & Fish, and Demian D. Chapman. Washington, D.C.: Pew Environment Group and the Roe Foundation, [2006?]. (Also available in Spanish)
- Stevens, Guy . Field Identification Guide of the Prebranchial Appendages (Gill Plates) of Mobulid Rays for Law Enforcement and Trade Monitoring Applications. Manta Trust, 2013.
- Ahmad, A. and Lim, A. P. K. Field Guide to Sharks of the Southeast Asian Region. [Bangkok, Thailand]: SEAFDEC, 2012.
- Cameron, G., Pendry, S. , Allan, C. and Wu, J. Traditional Asian Medicine Identification Guide for Law Enforcers: Version II. Her Majesty’s Customs and Excise, London and TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK, 2004.
- Cooper, E.W.T., Torntore, S.J., Leung, A.S.M, Shadbolt, T. and Dawe, C. Guide to the Identification of Precious and Semi-precious Corals in Commercial Trade. Vacouver: TRAFFIC North America and WWF-Canada, 2011.
- Espinoza, Edgard O. Identification guide for ivory and ivory substitutes / Edgard O. Espinoza, Mary-Jacque Mann ; with an introduction by Kenneth W. Goddard : Washington, D.C. : World Wildlife Fund and the Conservation Foundation, TRAFFIC, in cooperation with the CITES Secretariat, 1991.
- Lourie, S. A. et al. A Guide to the Identification of Seahorses. Project Seahorse and TRAFFIC North America. Washington D.C.: University of British Columbia and World Wildlife Fund, 2004.
- TRAFFIC. How to Identify Lygodactylus williamsi: A photographic Guide to the Turquoise Dwarf Gecko. [Cambridge: TRAFFIC], 2001
- TRAFFIC. Universal Caviar Labelling Requirements. [Cambridge: TRAFFIC], 2009.
Canada. Environment Canada
Colombia. Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible
México. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO)
Spain and Turkey
Hindistan Yaban Hayati Enstitüsü
Kew Royal Botanical Gardens
Pew Environment Group, PEW Charitable Trusts
Department of Agriculture
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Food and Agriculture Organization
IUCN and the International Foundation of « Banc d’Arguin » (FIBA)
Pew Environment Group, PEW Charitable Trusts
Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC)
- CITES Website
The official website of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
- CBD website
The official website of the Convention on Biological Diversity
- International Air Transport Association website on Combatting illegal wildlife trade
Transnational criminal gangs are exploiting the increasingly interconnected air transport system to traffic illegal flora and fauna. Aviation is committed to playing its part in stopping this trade in illegal wildlife, worth up to $10 billion annually.
- United Nations Environment Programme Website
- United States Environmental Protection Agency
Risk Assessment Portal
This site provides basic information about environmental risk assessments for the public. Additionally, the site offers a comprehensive set of links to key tools, guidance and guidelines.
Wildlife Trade in the EU
The Wildlife Trade in the EU website has been designed to provide up-to-date and tailor-made information to commercial European Union (EU) wildlife trade sectors as well as travellers and other people that have an interest in wildlife trade and seek information that enables them to comply with European Community Regulations.
- The European Community and Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora
Although the European Union is not yet a Party to CITES, its provisions have been implemented in Community law since 1982, when the first Community-wide legislation implementing the Convention entered into force.
Beginning with no. 8, each new edition of CITES World will examine topical CITES issues, review national and international actions and initiatives that are of interest to the CITES community.
Last modified: Thursday, 3 December 2015, 03:57 PM
- Number 19 - February 2010: CITES electronic commerce
This issue of CITES World offers a forum to United Nations organizations, Parties and non-governmental organizations that have been studying the impact of the Internet on the rate of illegal trade in wildlife.
- Number 18 - July 2009: CITES and the
advent of electronic permitting
This issue of CITES World offers Parties a general introduction to issues related to the establishment of electronic permitting systems.
- Number 17 - July 2006: Finding a simple
way to explain CITES
This edition of CITES World examines the difficulty that all Parties face in trying to explain in simple terms a convention such as CITES.
- Number 16 - December 2005: The confiscation
of illegally-traded or -possessed specimens of CITES-listed species
This edition of CITES World focuses on confiscation of specimens of CITES-listed species, starting with the obligations imposed by CITES and an explanation of the approach adopted by the Parties on how to deal with confiscated specimens and their disposal.
- Number 15 - July 2005: The importance
of legislation to CITES
This issue of CITES World looks at experiences with regard to national legislation. In their own words, Australia, Canada, China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Czech Republic, Indonesia, New Zealand, Paraguay, Switzerland, the European Union, the United States of America and Viet Nam share the lessons they have learned in developing, adopting and applying CITES legislation, demonstrating that there are many ways of addressing similar challenges.
- Number 14 - December 2004: CITES trade data
edition: Questions and Answers
This edition of CITES World tries to answer some questions about CITES trade data, such as how these can be interpreted and used. UNEP-WCMC provides guidance on accessing the information on-line.
- Number 13 - July 2004: CITES is a
An overview of issues related to meetings of the Conference of the Parties is presented in this edition of CITES World.
- Number 12 - December 2003: CITES in the
This 12th edition of CITES World focuses on a number of current, new or upcoming implementation tools that all have a common purpose: to make CITES work in the real world. These include species identification resources and guides, national implementation manuals, training materials, and other useful publications and tools.
- Number 11 - July 2003: Appendix III...?
This 11th edition of CITES World examines this seemingly forgotten list, looking at the current level of trade in Appendix-III species, and what makes for a suitable listing.
- 30 years of international agreement - March 2003
To commemorate 30 years of CITES, this special edition of CITES World looks at the history of the Convention from its conception to its present form.
- Number 10 - December 2002: The 92% of CITES
that never gets in the news
The Review of Significant Trade is the topic of this issue. It explains how the review works, and joins the Animals and Plants Committees and experts in exploring some recent examples.
- Number 9 - July 2002: CITES and plants
In this ninth issue of CITES World we present articles on the plant trade from the perspective of producing and importing countries, and look at how botanical gardens can support national efforts to tackle illegal plant trade. We also provide tips on differentiating between wild-sourced and artificially propagated orchids, and consider advances in CITES implementing legislation for plants.
- Number 8 - December 2001: Sturgeons
This edition examines issues related to CITES and the conservation and sustainable use of sturgeons.
- CITES Trade Data Dashboards