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Reference materials

Table of Contents

Conventions and Agreements

CITES Publications

  • CITES - Regulating the world's wildlife trade
    This brochure was prepared for the 40th anniversary of CITES.
  • CITES Handbook includes:
    • Text of the Convention
    • Appendices
    • Resolutions of the Conference of the Parties in effect after the 15th meeting
    • Decisions of the Conference of the Parties in effect after the 15th meeting
  • CITES terminology
    The basis for this glossary has been the compilation of the terms that are defined in the text of the Convention and in Resolutions. To this first set the Secretariat has added recurrent terms that have not been officially defined, such as 'amendment proposal'. Users of this glossary should note that the definitions provided herewith may be specific to CITES and not valid in another context.
  • CITES trade: a snapshot The brochure, CITES trade: a snapshot, includes snapshots of the analyses made, and the trade value and trends of key commodities of Appendix II species. It also presents many of the trends graphically, thereby giving readers a better grasp on the extent and importance of the Convention in the conservation and sustainable use of species.
  • Database driven Checklist of CITES Species, 2013
    This state-of-the-art electronic resource provides users with an intuitive interface where queries can be made using not just scientific or common species names but also CITES Appendices, countries or regions, and any combinations thereof. The display of results can be further refined by selecting criteria such as synonyms or authors' names. Users can thus produce a tailored Index of CITES species listing, for instance, all CITES species occurring in a specific country. The history of listing is displayed on screen for each taxon and can be printed off in a single document covering all taxa.
  • CITES and the WTO: Enhancing Cooperation for Sustainable Development
    The present joint publication illustrates how the relationship between CITES and the WTO has evolved into a leading example of how global trade and environmental regimes can support each other and work coherently to achieve shared objectives. Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO) and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 2015.
  • ICCWC: International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime
    The International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime ‘ICCWC’ is the collaborative effort of five intergovernmental organizations working to bring coordinated support to national wildlife law enforcement agencies and the subregional and regional enforcement networks that act in defence of natural resources
Evaluation of the Harvest of Prunus africana
Wildlife Crime Analytic Toolkit

Additional Readings

Non-Detriment Findings

  • Guidance For CITES Scientific Authorities: Checklist to assist in making non-detriment findings for Appendix II exports / Rosser, A.R. and Haywood, M.J. (Compilers). IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK., 2002.
    Originally published at the eleventh Conference of the Parties (Gigiri, 2000) as document Inf. 11.3
    • Table of contents
    • PART I: Introduction and rationale
    • PART II: Presentations made by Scientific Authority staff from producer and consumer Parties
    • PART III: Technical considerations in making non-detriment findings
    • PART IV: Guidelines to assist the Parties in making non-detriment findings
    • ANNEX I: French and Spanish translations of the Checklist to assist Scientific Authorities in making Non-detriment Findings
    • ANNEX II: Background Documents
    • References
  • Leaman, D.J. and Oldfield, T.E.E. CITES Non-detriment Findings Guidance for Perennial Plants: A nine-step process to support CITES Scientific Authorities making science-based non-detriment findings (NDFs) for species listed in CITES Appendix II.. V 1.0. (BfN-Skripten 358). Bonn: Bundesamt für Naturschutz (BfN), Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, 2014. (Available online as PC21 Inf. 1 or with additional information and material on the NDF-section of the website of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation)
  • Rose, Martin. Non-detriment Findings in CITES (NDFs). Version 1.2. By Martin Rose, on behalf of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management. Vienna, Austria: Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, 2014. Also available in German: Nachhaltigkeitsprüfungen in CITES (NDFs)
  • Shark NDF Guidance documents Developed by German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (CITES Scientific Authority)
    In March 2013 the 16th Conference of the Parties adopted the inclusion of five new shark species in Appendix II of CITES. As a follow-up in the same year the German Scientific Authority (Fauna) to CITES commissioned a project to develop a method to carry out non-detriment findings (NDFs) for shark species. The resulting report "CITES Non-detriment Findings - Guidance for Shark species" has been initially presented to the 27th Meeting of the Animals Committee in May 2014. This guidance was evaluated and tested by shark and CITES experts during a workshop convened at the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) in Bonn/Germany in August 2014. Based on the results of the workshop the initial guidance has been revised and an updated version produced. This revised version has also been translated into Spanish.
    The German Scientific Authority to CITES (Fauna) (, would welcome any comments to the revised version, especially with regard to experiences made when using the guidance to carry out non-detriment findings for specific shark stocks.
    • CITES Non-detriment Findings - Guidance for Shark species, 2014, 1stversion (AC Inf Document E-AC27-Inf-01)
    • Report of the German Workshop to Review the Shark NDF Guidance (PDF);
    • CITES Non-detriment Findings - Guidance for Shark species, 2014, 2nd, revised (PDF)
    • CITES DENP Guia Tiburones, 2014, 2nd version ( PDF)

    Publications made possible through the project Strengthening CITES implementation capacity of developing countries to ensure sustainable wildlife management and non-detrimental trade which was supported by the European Union

Theses (Universidad Internacional de Andalucía (UNIA))

Case Studies


  • CITES Trade Database
    The CITES trade database is a unique resource and currently holds 7 million records of trade in wildlife and 50,000 scientific names of taxa listed by CITES. Currently, more than 500,000 records of trade in CITES-listed species of wildlife are reported annually.
  • CITES Trade Data Dashboards
    The CITES Trade Data Dashboards provide an interactive, dynamic way of viewing the trade data submitted by CITES Parties in their annual reports to the Convention. Two points of entry are provided: 1)the Global Dashboard, which displays global trade trends by taxonomic group; and 2) the National Dashboard, which displays trade data by country or region.
  • Ecolex
    ECOLEX is an information service on environmental law, operated jointly by FAO, IUCN and UNEP. Its purpose is to build capacity worldwide by providing the most comprehensive possible global source of information on environmental law. This unique resource, which combines the environmental law information holdings of FAO, IUCN and UNEP, seeks to put this information at the disposal of users world-wide, in an easily accessible service, employing modern technology. The ECOLEX database includes information on treaties, international soft-law and other non-binding policy and technical guidance documents, national legislation, judicial decisions, and law and policy literature. Users have direct access to the abstracts and indexing information about each document, as well as to the full text of most of the information provided.
  • InforMEA
    InforMEA harvests COP decisions, news, meetings, membership, national focal points and reports from MEAs. Information is organised by terms from MEA COP agendas. InforMEA is a project of the MEA Information and Knowledge Management (IKM) Initiative with the support from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  • Trade Information Query Tool
    This database includes information on CITES Quotas, other CITES restrictions (animals only), and EC suspensions and opinions.
  • UNEP-WCMC E-library
    The UNEP-WCMC E-library is a searchable database of electronic documents, developed for the European Commission and Member States in the implementation of Community wildlife trade controls.
  • UNEP-WCMC EU Wildlife Trade Regulation database
    The EU Wildlife Trade Regulation database includes more than 33,000 accepted plant and animal species that are listed in the CITES Appendices and the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations and many of their synonyms. It was created and is maintained by UNEP-WCMC with financial support from the European Commission.
  • Species+
    Species+, developed by UNEP-WCMC and the CITES Secretariat, is a website designed to assist Parties with implementing CITES, CMS and other multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Species+ provides a centralised portal for accessing key information on species of global concern.
    In particular, Species+ contains information on all species that are listed in the Appendices of CITES and CMS, as well as other CMS Family listings and species included in the Annexes to the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations.

Identification Materials


  • CITES Website
    The official website of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
  • CBD website
    The official website of the Convention on Biological Diversity
  • United Nations Environment Programme Website
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency Risk Assessment Portal
    This site provides basic information about environmental risk assessments for the public. Additionally, the site offers a comprehensive set of links to key tools, guidance and guidelines.
  • Wildlife Trade in the EU
    The Wildlife Trade in the EU website has been designed to provide up-to-date and tailor-made information to commercial European Union (EU) wildlife trade sectors as well as travellers and other people that have an interest in wildlife trade and seek information that enables them to comply with European Community Regulations.
  • The European Community and Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora
    Although the European Union is not yet a Party to CITES, its provisions have been implemented in Community law since 1982, when the first Community-wide legislation implementing the Convention entered into force.

CITES World Official Newsletter of the Parties

Beginning with no. 8, each new edition of CITES World will examine topical CITES issues, review national and international actions and initiatives that are of interest to the CITES community.


Last modified: Monday, 22 June 2015, 05:05 PM